Wednesday, November 8, 2017

Celebrating Army ROTC: 150 Years of Military Science and Tactics at MU

Celebrating Army ROTC 

150 Years of Military Science and Tactics at MU


The Army ROTC is the oldest officer training program at the University of Missouri with the Infantry Unit formed in 1917, only one year after President Woodrow Wilson signed the National Defense of 1916 that brought all university military programs under federal control. The Artillery Unit was added in 1919. In 1929, a marching unit of the Army ROTC cadets adopted the name Tiger Battalion and the group participated in campus parades and football games. Today, Tiger Battalion is the unofficial nickname of the Army ROTC unit.
All able-bodied male students of MU were required to complete four semesters of military science until 1965. This change was precipitated by the ROTC Vitalization Act of 1964, which required programs to upgrade their curriculum and expanded financial aid to cadets.

The Tiger Battalion Crest

Torch- The Torch denotes scholarship and knowledge.  The eternal flame stands for the persistence needed to become an Army officer and the true friendships that will be made.

Crossed Field Guns- The field artillery insignia represents the Tiger Battalion’s history of commissioning Filed Artillery officers. 

Bear- The Bear represents strength and bravery.  This bear can be found on the Great Seal of the State of Missouri.

Stars- The five stars represent the five schools that made up the Tiger Battalion; University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia College, Central Methodist University, William Woods University, and Westminster College.

Scroll- The Scroll bears the Tiger Battalion’s motto, “Tigers Lead the Way,” in Latin and the year in which the Tiger Battalion was established. 

The History of Army ROTC at MU

The Army Bill and Military Training
In 1868 under the Army Bill, the University of Missouri became one of the first 20 schools in the nation to receive army instructors to teach the Reserve Officer Training Corps curriculum.  Major General Richard W. Johnson became the first Professor of Military Science and Tactics (PMS&T).  In 1869, the Board of Curators at the University of Missouri made military training mandatory for all male students.  Upon its inception, ROTC battalions were affiliated with a certain branch.  Since MU ROTC graduates were commissioned as Field Artillery officers, MU's training focused on Field Artillery tactics.

The Missouri Military School
The Morrill Act of 1862 established Land Grant institutions and required these colleges to participate in the National Defense Program. A requirement of the act was that all male students take a course in basic military tactics. Mizzou was one of the first institutions to adopt the Morrill Act by creating the Missouri Military School. This photograph was taken as cadets were performing military drills on Francis Quadrangle in 1894. (Image courtesy of University Archives, Collect C:0/47/3)

Announcement for the Missouri State Military School, 1907.
The Missouri State Military School was a Department at the University of Missouri, established for the purpose of providing military training to young men while they continued their college studies. The announcement continues to detail the advantaged of military training and regiments at the University. (Graciously loaned by the University Archives, collection: C:29/2/1)

The Legacy of Enoch Crowder
In 1884 Enoch H. Crowder, a first lieutenant at the time, was assigned as PMS&T and Military Science (MS) classes were awarded academic credit.  1LT Crowder instituted the first "summer camp" training period and energized the program.  During his stay at Mizzou, he started the first ROTC cadet band in the nation, which later became the world famous Marching Mizzou.   He also established a ladies drill company of nearly 100 women. So great was 1LT Crowder's influence on the ROTC program at Mizzou that our ROTC building was named for him.  He rose to the rank of General before retiring from the Army. 

The Reserve Officer’s Training Program comes to Mizzou
The National Defense Act of 1916 dramatically altered the Army and standardized the Army ROTC program through the establishment of the Reserve Officer’s Training Program at schools and colleges throughout the United States. On September 8, 1917, the University of Missouri officially started the Reserve Officers Training Program.

Program for the Dedication of Crowder Hall, 1940
The ROTC building was dedicated on May 10, 1940, named in honor of Major General Enoch Crowder. (Graciously loaned by the University Archives, collection C:29/00/1)

Crowder Hall Construction Crew, 1938
(Image courtesy of Army ROTC)

The Student War Board

The Student War Board was established in 1942 to organize student war efforts. They sponsored first aid classes, promoted the purchasing of war bond stamps with dances and concerts. The board expanded as war efforts came to campus with dormitories and fraternity houses were used to house servicemen being trained at Mizzou. Entertainment for the servicemen was a primary activity of the board from 1943 through 1946. The board sponsored scrap drives and worked with Campus Red Cross to run blood drives. A faculty war board mirrored the work of the students with the added responsibility of advising students who were called into military service. The Student War Board disbanded in 1946, but groups like the Campus Red Cross and Pan-hellenic Councils continued their tradition of service during the Korean War and later military conflicts.

Military Training on Campus
Preparing Tigers to Lead

MU cadets training, c. 1940s, images courtesy of Army ROTC

MU cadets training and preparing for inspection, c. 1990s, images courtesy of Army ROTC

War Efforts at Home
Campus Red Cross organized blood drives to support the military’s needs during wartime. This image shows two students after providing their pints in Read Hall, then the student union, during a blood drive for the Korean War. (1951 Savitar )

The GI Bill and Mizzou
The Campus Grows!

The G.I. Bill, enacted in 1944, provided paid tuition for veterans who enrolled in university after completing their military service. World War II had decreased enrollment with thousands of men joining the military after high school. At the lowest point, MU had 1,938 students.
In 1947, the enrollment climbed to 11,452. To meet the demand caused by the upswing in enrollment necessitated the building of temporary housing for students (the TDs). The buildings were an eclectic mix of trailer houses, plain wooden structures and Quonset huts. Students gave the temporary dorms the colorful nicknames of "G.I. City" and "Pneumonia Gulch" among others. Trailers parks were formed on the area of campus known as the "Dairy Lawn." The last of the TDs came down in 1983 with Chancellor Barbara Uehling behind the wheel of the bulldozer. 

Post WWII temporary housing. University Court is visible in the lower portion of the photo. Pneumonia Gulch is seen in the upper left of the photo (courtesy of the UMC Archives: C:1/40/1)

The Vitalization Act
ROTC remained basically unchanged through 1964, when the ROTC Vitalization Act was passed.  The ROTC Vitalization Act established the scholarship program, Basic Camp, and a monthly cash stipend and did away with the practice of training cadets in branch-specific tactics.  Because cadets could now choose their branch upon commissioning, the program focused on general military tactics.  ROTC at Mizzou became optional in 1965.  In 1971, the Vitalization Act was altered to allow women into the program and in 1973, six female students enrolled in the freshman MS class at MU. 

First Lieutenant Mort Walker

Mort Walker, MU alum and creator of Beetle Bailey, served as cartoonist of the Savitar before being drafted into the army in late 1943. His illustrations were used as introductions to each section of the 1943 edition. After WWII ended, Mort returned to MU and became a founding member of the Showme magazine staff. 

Army ROTC Cartoon
In 1992, Mort Walker returned to campus as the William Francis English Scholar-in-Residence. During his visit, he created this cartoon for Army ROTC, celebrating their history and importance using familiar characters from Beetle Bailey. (Image from Army ROTC)

ROTC Groups at MU

The University Cadet Band
General Enoch Crowder secured a $125 grant from the Board of Curators to form a military band in 1885. The university provided instruments and uniforms to the twelve charter members who performed classical music by composers such as Beethoven and Wagner. Marching during ROTC drills and playing concerts in Jesse Hall, the Cadet Band was a popular part of the Military Science department until 1946 when membership was opened to students in any major and the band was moved under the auspices of the College of Fine Arts. (1939 Savitar )

MU Women’s Drill Company
During Crowder’s time as a military instructor at the University of Missouri, he drilled and instructed two hundred male cadets. After receiving a number of petitions, Crowder organized the MU Ladies’ Department Drill Company that consisted of one hundred female cadets. While this was unusual for the 1880s, the program proved popular with students and the university administration. This image shows Major General Enoch Crowder with a number of women from the company. 

Army ROTC Color Guard hold the American flag before a Mizzou basketball game, c. 1990s. (Photo courtesy of Army ROTC)

Mizzou Cannon Crew
Little Joe has a rich history of supporting Mizzou football. Since 1895, there has been the tradition of celebration-by-cannon fire, and despite some brief recesses, there has been a continual firing of Little Joe after every Mizzou score- whether it be touchdown, field goal, or safety. The ROTC crew still counts out the score along with Truman the Tiger with the corresponding number of pushups, and now the front row of the student section (Tiger’s Lair) gets in on the action. In 2014, Little Joe was retired and replaced by a new cannon, affectionately named Mizzouka. Photo by Rachel Coward, MIZZOU Magazine, November 16, 2012

Ranger Challenge is the ROTC version of a varsity sport, pitting programs against each other in a competition of physical strength and endurance as well as applicable military knowledge and skills. (Image c. 1990s, courtesy of Army ROTC)

Honoring Mizzou Veterans and Alumni

Major General Enoch Herbert Crowder
(April 11, 1859 – May 7, 1932)

General Crowder played a prominent role in the military history of Mizzou. He was head of the military department for two semesters, beginning in 1885. Crowder also helped create the Ladies’ Department Drilling Company after petitions from about 100 women. In 1940, the ROTC building was dedicated to him in honor of his contributions to the university. He was also given an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from Mizzou in 1920.

In addition to his contributions to Mizzou, General Crowder also made major contributions to the U.S. military. In 1911, he achieved the rank of brigadier general and headed the U.S. Army’s Judge Advocate General Corps. He was instrumental in changing the army’s military justice system by rewriting the Manual for Court-Martial and improving military prison conditions. When World War I broke out, Lt. Crowder founded and was instrumental in writing the Selective Service Act (the Draft).

As a high-ranking official in the military, General Crowder committed himself to reforming and writing laws. After his promotion to major and his transfer to the Judge Advocate General’s Corps in 1895, he served as a full-time attorney. He was sent to the Philippines after the Spanish American War broke out to set up new criminal laws that made their legal system fair and impartial. Crowder spent the remainder of his career creating and revising legal systems in both foreign countries and in the United States. He retired in 1923 after 40 years of service.

(Image courtesy of the State Historical Society of Missouri)

Colonel Arthur David “Bull” Simons
(June 14, 1918 – May 21, 1979)

After graduating in 1941 from Mizzou and the Army ROTC program with a Bachelor of Journalism degree, Col. Arthur “Bull” Simons was commissioned a Second Lieutenants in Field Artillery. During World War II, he was deployed to New Guinea before being assigned to the 6th Ranger Battalion, which participated in a number of hazardous landings in the Pacific and rescued approximately 500 prisoners of war during the Cabunatuan Raid.

In 1951, Simons was recalled to active duty after a five-year hiatus to serve as a Ranger instructor in Georgia before going on to serve tours with Military Assistance Advisory Group, Turkey; the XVIII Airborne Corps; and the 77th Special Forces Group, before becoming the Deputy Commander/Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army Special Warfare Center in 1960. From 1961-62, Lt. Col. Simons commanded the Operation White Star Mobile Training Team in Laos, and from 1962-64, he served as the first commander of the 8th Special Forces Group in Panama. After Panama, he was assigned to the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam Studies and Observations Group, which conducted numerous clandestine missions in Southeast Asia.

In 1970, Col. Simons was called to be the ground commander of Operation Ivory Coast, a join special operations effort that was influential in improving treatment of prisoners in North Vietnam. Col. Simons retired from the Army in 1971, however, he played an essential role in the rescue of prisoners from Iran in 1978. The rescue operation went on to be featured in Ken Follett’s book, On Wings of Eagles. (Image courtesy of Arthur D. Simons Center for Interagency Cooperation)

Lieutenant Colonel Richard Wheeler
(b. December 27, 1929)

Lt. Col. Richard Wheeler began his military career at the age of 18, when he joined the U.S. Navy at the end of WWII in 1946 as a fireman on a U.S. Navy oil tanker. Honorably discharged in 1947, he attended the University of Missouri and was part of the Army ROTC Program before graduating in 1951. The following year, the lieutenant volunteered for active duty and served as a Forward Observer during the Korean War. Upon returning to the United States, Lt. Col. Wheeler continued to serve active duty in the Army for the next twenty-five years. He served in a number of positions across the country and in Germany, eventually appointed as an Assistant Professor of Military Science at Washington University in 1961. 

By 1965, Wheeler was a U.S. Army Major and had earned an MA in Education, but prior to completing his work towards a doctorate, he volunteered for service in Vietnam and was assigned as a Division Artillery Advisor. After 32 combat operations, he returned home with numerous medals and honors including a Bronze star and a Purple Heart. Lt. Col. Wheeler returned to the U.S. to serve as an information officer until he retired in 1969 after twenty-two years in the military. Beginning in 1971, Lt. Col. Wheeler began his work at the Admiral Farragut Academy, serving the next 35 years as volunteer headmaster's assistant, alumni activity coordinator, Headmaster, among many other roles. 
(Image courtesy of Army ROTC Hall of Fame)

Lieutenant General Jerome Granrud
(b. 1937)

A 1960 Mizzou graduate, Lt. Gen. Jerome Granrud went on to study at the Army War College and the Harvard Program for Senior Executives. Commissioned into the U.S. Army as a field artillery officer, he held a position on the Army Staff as the Army Force Developer responsible for the strategic oversight and planning for Army modernization, force structure design, and doctrine development. In this role, he was the planner and programmer for all Army Equipment programs and for the introduction of those systems in the force. 

Lt. Gen. Granrud also served as Commanding General of U.S. Army Japan and IX Corps from 1992 to 1996. After 34 years of active service, he retired from the Army and has served on the board of advisors for Maryland Cyber Investment Partners and the Board of Directors for UQM Technologies. (Image courtesy of Army ROTC)

Lieutenant Colonel Larry Ray
(b. 1943)
After graduating from the University of Missouri and Army ROTC Program in 1965, Ray was commissioned as a Field Artillery Officer in the U.S. Army. During his time at Mizzou, he was a member of the 1965 Track and Field Championship team, was selected as an AAU All-American, and was part of the 2-mile relay team that held a 45-year record at the University. Lt. Col. Ray served in a variety of command and staff positions within the U.S. Army between 1965-87. He graduated from both fixed and rotary wing flight school and completed two combat tours in Vietnam as a helicopter pilot. 

Lt. Col. Ray earned an MBA from Washington University in St. Louis in 1973 and worked as an Assistant Professor of Military Science at the University. In his final years of service, he served in the Republic of Korea and Germany as a staff officer within Headquarters US Army Europe, ending his career as Chief for Force Structure Development. After 23 years of active service in the Army, Lt. Col. Ray has served the Naples, Florida community as Vice President of Support Services for the Naples Community Hospital, where he directed the construction of an Open Heart Surgery addition to the operating room and managed the construction of a 363 bed hospital in North Naples. In 2008, he was elected as the Collier County tax collector and continues his lifelong commitment to public service. 

(Images courtesy of the 1965 Savitar)

Captain Richard Kinder
(b. October 19, 1944)

Captain Richard Kinder received his undergraduate degree in 1966 and his law degree in 1968, both from the University of Missouri. After graduating, Kinder volunteered for the JAG Corps, serving as a U.S. military attorney during the Vietnam War between 1968-1972. Upon his return to the United States, Kinder began his career in large-scale real estate investments. After a failed investment and subsequent bankruptcy, he began working for the Florida Gas Company, which specialized in pipeline transportation and eventually became part of the Enron Corporation in 1984. 

In 1990, Kinder began working as President and Chief Operating Officer. However, after being passed up for a promotion to CEO in 1996, he left the company to found Kinder Morgan Inc. with former MU classmate, William Morgan. Over the coming years, Kinder developed an executed his company's vision and strategy, building Kinder Morgan into the largest energy infrastructure company and fourth-largest energy company on the continent. In 1997, he established the Kinder Foundation, which has provided significant donations for green space development and education improvements. In 2015, the Kinders donated $25 million to Mizzou for the development of the Kinder Institute on Constitutional Democracy, which they established in 2014. 

George "Gene" Stephenson
(b. August 30, 1945)

While at the University of Missouri between 1965-68, Stephenson was a member of the Army ROTC Program and first baseman on the Mizzou Baseball team under coach Hi Simmons. A key player on the team, Stephenson was the captain of the Tigers Big 8 conference champions and was selected as first team all-conference in baseball. Following graduation, Stephenson served three years in the U.S. Army, deploying to Germany and then Vietnam as an Operations officer. 

After returning from Vietnam, Stephenson left the Army to coach college baseball. He worked as an assistant coach at the University of Missouri and Oklahoma before becoming the Head Coach at Wichita State University in 1978. Stephenson revitalized Wichita State's baseball program and in his third year, the Shockers made their first NCAA Tournament appearance in school history. Under his leadership, the Shockers made seven College World Series and 26 NCAA tournament appearances, including 14 straight tournaments between 1987-2000. Stephenson is nationally recognized as the first head coach in NCAA Division 1 baseball to reach and exceed 1,837 career wins. He is also known as one of the very few coaches responsible for elevating the overall game and the visibility of college baseball through the success of his teams and by raising $18 million to build one of the first large collegiate baseball facilities in the United States. 

(Images courtesy of 1967-1968 Savitar and Wichita State Shockers Baseball Program,

Charles Andrew “Andy” Russell
(b. 1941)

Andy Russell attended the University of Missouri between 1959 and 1963, graduating with a BS in economics. While at Mizzou, Russell participated in Army ROTC and played football under coach Dan Devine, lettering from 1960 to 1962. He played in three bowl games, including the 1961 Orange Bowl in which he intercepted two passes in a win against Navy. After graduating, Russell was drafted by the Pittsburgh Steelers, making the 1963 NFL rookie All-Star team. In 1964, he temporarily left the team to serve in the the army as an Aide-De-Camp to the 7th Corps Commander in Germany. Russell achieved the rank of second lieutenant and was named the Most Outstanding Player in USAREUR (U.S. Army Europe) Football.

After returning from the Army, Russell earned his MBA from Mizzou and returned to the Steelers, where he would spend the next 11 seasons. During his time in Pittsburgh, he became a famed member of the Steel Curtain defense and was named Defense MVP in 1968 and 1970, and Team MVP in 1971.  Russell played in seven Pro Bowls, earned two Super Bowl rings in Super Bowl IX and Super Bowl, and served as captain of the team for 10 years. Russell was named to the NFL’s All-Pro Team of the 1970s and has been inducted into various Hall of Fames in Pennsylvania and Missouri. Since retiring from football, Russell has had a successful career in municipal finance and investment banking. In March of 1999, he created the Andy Russell Charitable Foundation to contribute funds to children’s charities. Russell continues to give back to the community, raising awareness and funds to support children and battle hunger in America.

(Images courtesy of the 1962 Savitar and 

Lieutenant General James L. Campbell
(b. August 16, 1949)

Mizzou Army ROTC alumni, Lt. Gen. James L. Campbell graduated from Mizzou in 1971 with a BS in Physical Educaiton before earning a MS in Physical Education from the University of Illinois and an MA in National Security and Strategic Studies from the U.S. Naval War College. After he was commissioned into the U.S. Army as an Active Duty Infantry Officer, Lt. Gen. Campbell continued to serve in high profile operations throughout his tenure. In 1993, he served in Operation Uphold Democracy in Haiti. As Commanding General of the 10th Mountain Division from 199-2001, he deployed to Bosnia-Herzegovina and served as Commanding General for the Multi-National Division (North) for Operation Joint Forge. Lt. Gen. Campbell commanded the U.S. Army, Pacific from November 2002 to August 2004 and became the 13th Director of the U.S. Army Staff at the Pentagon. He retired in 2008 after 37 years of service.

Lt. Gen. Campbell has received a number of significant awards and medals and served in other notable duty assignments including Commander of the Joint Task Force for Full Accounting for U.S. PACOM and the Assistant Division Commander for the 25th Infantry Division. Upon his retirement, Lt. Gen Campbell spoke on the importance of committed leadership within the military: “Every action, deed, and word has to be [in the service of] those Soldiers, to make sure they are trained to do their jobs. The best leader is the guy that is out there trying with his Soldiers. When it gets colder, when it gets wetter, when it gets more dangerous, that’s when that leader is most important, and that’s where he’s got to be.”

(Image courtesy of Army ROTC Hall of Fame; C. Todd Lopez, “Pushing Men Out of Planes Kept Him in the Army,” 15 February 2008.)

Make sure to stop by the MU Student Center during the month of November to see the Army ROTC  exhibit on display outside of the Shack!